We propose a novel network-based approach for inferring a well-defined range of socio-physical/historical phenomena (processes) from spatio-temporal data (patterns) prevalent in Archaeology. The resulting framework will be tailored to model processes such as innovation spreading, migrations and settlement development based on real-world 4D archaeological data. To provide a  proof-of-concept, the framework will be applied to the archaeological evidence for the Romanization of Northern Africa.